Crusades. Crusader wars in Holy land and in the medieval Europe. The Medieval crusades. Why the crusader knights fought? List of crusades and results.
Crusades were the conflict that entered the Western Europe during the high Middle Ages and remain a part of the region till the end of the late middle ages. It came with religious conflicts that were created by the catholic people against the Muslims, the heretics and the pagans. These were the wars that started by the Christian states in Europe. Crusades began in the year 1095 when the Pope Clarement preached for the 1sts crusade. The reason behind the crusades was war in Jerusalem. It was the city that had holy significance for both the Muslims as well as the Christians. There was a church of holy sepulcher and the tomb of the Christ in the city. When in 1065, the city was conquered by the Turks, many of the Christians were massacred. After this, a series of events led off the cause of the crusades.
8 crusades were fought in Holy Land during the medieval times. The first one was called by Pope Urban II during 1096 and 1100. The commanders of the crusades were Bohemund , Godfrey de Bouillon and Raymond. A number of soldiers, peasants and even children and females joined the war but they had no clue about the climate that waits in the land. The first crusade was a success in the west. They could hold the territory for a century only.
The crusades fought later were not as victorious as the first one. The victory for the west was just a fluke because when the Christian army arrived in the Middle East, the Muslim army was weak. Further crusades were fought against the Turks. The Turks tried to destroy the Byzantine Empire. These crusades failed however. More battles in Spain and Germany were fought which proved to be successful.
There has been several positive result of these crusades. The people advanced in trade, medicine and knowledge. The knights learned many healing techniques from the Arabs and Persians and they brought these techniques to Western Europe. When in 1291, the last city of the Christians, Acre fell, the kingdom of Jerusalem was lost from the hands of the Christians. These wars however helped the European civilization to flourish.
List of Important Crusades
North European Crusades (Baltic crusades, 12th-13th century)
Crusades against non Christian Prusians, Livs, Estonians, Finns, Plabian Slavs and Curonians. The crusades were led by Teutonic order, Swedes, Denmark and Czechs (King Premysl Ottokar II).
Result: Christianization of North-East Europe.
The Albigensian Crusade 1209-1229 -Crusade against Cathars in South France (Languedoc region).
Result: Languedoc came under French rule, inquisition has been established in Toulouse in 1233.
Anti Hussite Crusades
Series of 5 crusades in 15th century against Kingdom of Bohemia. These crusade wars was a conflict between Catholic church and reformed Hussite church. Crusaders from France, German lands, Italy lost all 5 wars. The Hussite wars ended in a religious compromise between Catholicism and Hussite church.
Key to victory: Jan Zizka, the legendary Hussite general applied a new and very modern tactics against the classical knight strategy. Hussite armies used gunpowder and wagoon fort agains classical medival tactics what caused several total defeats to the armies of crusaders. The hussite leader lost not a single battle in his career.
Crusades in Holy Land
First Crusade (1096-1099)
60-100 000 Eruropean crusades established the Crusader states on Holy land.
Third Crusade (1189-1192)
Philip II of France, Richard the Lionheart of England and Frederick Barbarossa of Germany x Saladin. Crusaders succesfully recaptured several Crusader teritories in Holy Land including Jaffa and Acre. They failed to capture Jerusalem.
Eight Crusade (1270-1291)
The fall of the city of Acre to the Mamluk Sultan Khalil on May 18, 1291 ended 192 years of Crusader territory in the Holy Land.
Gains of Crusaders:
New Food Products: citruses (lemons), apricots, rice, sugar, spices, melons, coffee.
New goods: cotton, mirrors, carpets, paper.
New ideas and inventions: chess, compass, water wheels and clocks, arabic figures (0-9), algebra, irrigation, oriental medicine, chemistry, gun powder.