History of Wars of Roses medieval article. Wars of Roses-English civil war in 15th century. Causes, battles, persons and result of Wars of Roses.
Wars of Roses, the civil wars in England started from 1455 and lasted till 1487. These were the wars that were fought between the Houses of Lancaster and York for the throne of England. These 30 years of the series of wars were proven to be the most destructive wars in the country even more destructive than the wars that were fought in the previous century. The last ruler King Richard II died without an heir. Henry IV was the person who murdered him. Henry IV and his descendants belonged to the Houses of Lancaster. The other party was from Edward IV and belonged to the Houses of York.
The name Wars of Roses are a symbol that refers to the Heraldic budgets that both the royal houses had an association with. This name was given to these wars in the 19th century when Anne of Geierstein by Sir Walter Scott was published. The name was inspired from a scene in the play Henry VI Part 1 by William Shakespeare in which a number of noble picked red and white roses for showing loyalty to the family they belonged to.
War of Roses actually began in the year 1455 when the Duke of York, Richard challenged the current king of England for his right to get the throne. The king of England, Henry VI, at that time belonged to the Lancaster family. He was a pious ruler but had turned weak and he was prone to attacks of insanity. He had descended from Henry IV. Duke of York tried to get the throne by arguing that the descendants of Henry IV have no right to the throne as he himself took the position of the king unlawfully.
Battle of Bosworth (1485)
The war ends when the Yorkists were defeated out of the hands of the Lancastrians. It happened when Richard III was killed. Henry finds Richard’s crown from the battlefield and he places it on his head making himself the King of England. Henry VII hence gets crowned and he got married to Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV. Though the wars ended but they brought about massive destruction in the country. The lives of the poor were badly affected.
Wars of Roses – important persons
King of England from Lancasterian house. Pious and insane king. Died in Tower, probably murdered by Edward IV.
Margaret of Anjou
Wife of Henry VI. Queen of England and France. Red queen-Famous as an agressive and unscrupulous woman. She lost her son in the Battle of Tewkesbury, she was arrested in Tower by Edward IV. Margaret died broken and forgotten in France.
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, Kingmaker
English nobleman, originally on Yorkish side. Executed after rebellion against Edward IV. His daughters Anne and Isabella were wives of George and Richard III (brothers of Edward IV.).
Kingmaker: Richard helped to Edward IV to aquire the English throne. He switched the sides later and he helped to reestablish Henry VI as a king.
King of England. Famous knight and warrior with a huge charisma, military genius. Member of House of York. Husband of Elizabeth Woodwille. His children were arrested in Tower on order of his brother RIchard III after his death.
Wife of Edward IV. Her familly was originally on side of Lancasters but she became wife of Edward IV and queen of England (White queen). Her kids were arrested in Tower by order of Richard III. He was blamed of their murder.
Brother of Edward IV, originally on side of Yorks. Arrested after he switched the side. Executed in wine by his brother Edward IV. His wife was Isabella Neville, daughter of Kingmaker.
Brother of Edward IV. Killed in Battle of Bosworth by army of Henry Tudor. The last king from Plantagenet dynasty. His wife was Anne Neville, daughter of Kingmaker.
Henry Tudor. Winner of Wars of Roses after Battle of Bosworth where the Richard III died. Founder of Tudor dynasty, father of famous Henry VIII.